Jumat, 29 Maret 2013

How to prevent ankle sprains-risk factors (part 3)

There have been many studies on how ankle sprains are caused and the factors that increase the risk of ankle sprains. In this article I will go over some of the most common factors and less risk of incurring a sprained ankle. While someone who walks or runs, occur most frequently in athletes can cause ankle sprains. There are several risk factors proposed for ankle sprains in athletes. While it may be difficult for researchers to design good studies of risk factors there are a couple that are generally accepted for ankle sprains.

History of ankle sprain. The strongest predictor of ankle sprains is a previous history of ankle sprains. This conclusion is shared by almost all studies on the subject [1], [2], [3], [4]. People with the highest risk after they have sprained his ankle earlier are those who incorrectly rehabilitating the injury. An unrehabilitated ankle may be unstable following and is open to be sprained again and again. The reason for this, some researchers believe, is that when an ankle injury occurs when some of the nerves that tell your body what is your ankle is in position are damaged. These nerves are called proprioceptors and the ability to determine the position of the parts of your body is called proprioception. When these nerves are injured can be harder for your body to know how to position the foot to keep it safe.

Balance. Lack of balance (also called postural Sway), may indicate a lack of proprioception due to ankle stability. A study of risk factors of ankle sprain identified athletes with poor balance as those who could not keep a single-leg position for at least 15 seconds without touching the foot unplanted to remain stable [5]. These people had a greater occurrence of injury ankle sprain. Another researcher has studied players high school basketball using a machine specially designed to identify those with poor balance [6]. Players with low test scores pre-Leagues lived ankle sprains almost 7 times more than those with normal balance.

Height and weight. There isn’t much agreement if height and weight are significant factors for ankle sprains. Studies of soldiers in basic training exercises indicated that being taller and heavier were risk factors. Another research study, however, has experienced different results and determined that, by itself, is not a risk factor [7]. This was based on a study of 1,601 West Point cadets who participated in basketball with no history of ankle sprain or instability. There were no results to indicate height and weight, like something you want to increase or decrease the risk of a sprained ankle. Until more research is done is unclear whether people taller or heavier than have a higher risk for spraining an ankle.

Joint laxity of the foot shape. You might expect an ankle lax to be at a greater risk of ankle sprains. However, the evidence indicates that this is not the case. One research study evaluated ankle joint laxity by orthopedic test [8]. Based on these results that it was not possible to predict an increased likelihood for ankle sprains is based on joint mobility. Other factors such as the shape of the foot or over pronated while running or walking, did not indicate a higher risk of distortions. However, above and below pronation may indicate a certain instability of the foot.

Genus. Males and females tend to experience the same frequency of ankle sprains. When all other risk factors are taken out of the equation, neither sex is at a higher risk for a sprained ankle.

Muscle strength and reaction time. Muscle strength and reaction time are not risk factors for ankle sprains. The muscles in your legs control the position of the foot. The researchers studied the speed and forces necessary for ankle sprain [9], [10]. For ruptured a ligament in the ankle speed required is greater than the rate at which the muscles react to stimulus that the ankle is about to go too far in one direction or the other. Also it takes even longer for your muscles reach full contraction. By the time this happens that your ligaments may be gone long. What influence

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